A school of late nineteenth-century landscape painting formed in the period following 1883 to 1884 under the influence of Giovanni (Nino) Costa. The subject was often the Roman Campagna and Tuscany. The style was panoramic and tonal, aiming both to revive the tradition of Claude Lorrain and evoke emotion. The principal members included George James Howard (later ninth Earl of Carlisle), Matthew Ridley Corbet (1850 to 1902), Edith Corbet (circa 1850 to1920), William Blake Richmond, Edgar Barclay (1842 to 1913), and Walter Maclaren (fl. 1869 to1903), and the Italians Gaetano Vannicola (1859 to 1923), Napoleone Parisani (1854 to 1932), and Norberto Pazzini (1856 to 1937).

Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. .

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