- FINAL BRONZE AGE
- The final phase of the Bronze Age dating between approximately 1175 and 925 BC (using latest adjustments from dendrochronology), also known as the Protovillanovan in central Italy. Settlements were of village dimensions, ranging from one to 15 hectares in size. Some scholars consider that there was already some form of social hierarchy at this stage, but burial and settlement evidence gives relatively little support for this claim. However, this was the phase when most of the future Etruscan (and some Faliscan) cities were already occupied, including Caere, Chiusi, Cortona, Falerii Veteres, Orvieto, Pisa, Populonia, Tarquinia, Veii (or least very close by), and Vulci. Bronze metallurgy developed to a highly elaborate level and the Etruscans produced a very wide range of artifacts in the latest phase of the Bronze Age. Groups of these tools, scrap, and potentially ritualized objects were quite frequently deposited as hoards. Many Final Bronze Age sites are known including Bagnoregio, Bisenzio, Blera, Caolino, Casone, Castel Campanile, Castellina del Cerasolo, Castellina di Marangone, Castellina delle Ciovitte, Castello di Corneto, Castiglione di Torreimpietra, Ceri, Cerqueto, Cibona, Civita del Fosso di Arlena, Coste del Marano, Croce di Bura, Crostoletto di Lamone, Farnese, Ferleta, Foiano, Forchetta del Sasso, Forchetta di Palano, Fosso dei Due Ponti, Grotte Santo Stefano, Gualdo Tadino, Gubbio, Montarana, Monte Abbadone, Monte Cetona, Monte Cimino, Monte delle Grazie, Montefiascone, Monte Fogliano, Monte Marino, Monte Piombone, Monterano, Monte Roncione, Monte Sant’Angelo, Monte Sant’Elia, Monte Sassetto, Monte Urbano, Nepi, Norchia, Orte, Palanzana, Pianello di Genga, Pianizza, Pisciarello, Pitigliano, Poggio Buco, Poggio Castelsecco, Poggio della Pozza, Poggio di Sermugnano, Pontecchio, Prato Gonfiente, Rocca Respampani, Rogge di Canino, Rota, San Giovenale, Sasso di Furbara, Scarceta, Sorgenti della Nova, Sovana, Sutri, Tolfa, Tolfaccia, Tolfa Hills, Torre d’Ischia, Torre Stroppa, Torre Valdaliga, Torrionaccio, Uliveto di Cencelle, Vallerano, and Vitorchiano. Burial took the form of small cremation cemeteries.
Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. Simon K. F. Stoddart.