NORTH ETRURIA
   The region of Etruria bounded by the Apennines and the Arno River to the north, the Tiber River to the east, and the Albegna Valley and Monte Amiata to the south. It contains the major cities of Arezzo, Fiesole, Volterra, Vetulonia, Roselle, Cortona, and Chiusi. Northern Etruria is composed geologically of two zones. The northern area immediately to the south of the Arno has geological formations similar to the Apennines themselves (including limestones and conglomerates). The southern zone around Volterra and beyond has a high presence of marine Pliocene deposits (clays, sands, and gravels). This zone is much affected by dissection and erosion, particularly under the impact of modern agriculture, but this degradation is almost certainly a longer-standing problem. At the southernmost limit of this area lies Monte Amiata (1,738 meters above sea level), the most northerly and some of the most distantly active (9 million to 1 million years ago) evidence of volcanism in the peninsula. The southern coastal part of this zone comprises the distinctive Maremma region.

Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. .

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