- SAN GIOVENALE
- An important excavated site of about three hectares with Middle, Recent, and Final Bronze Age levels below late Iron Age (eighth and seventh centuries BC) and Etruscan levels, strategically placed on the Mignone River. One Mycenean sherd (Myc IIIC) was also found in the Final Bronze Age levels. Two Final Bronze Age cremation cemeteries at Porzarago and Fosso del Pietrisco probably belong to this settlement. The majority of scholars do not detect continuous Iron Age occupation, although some of the Swedish excavators have considered some of the levels to be contemporary with the Iron Age. The site was fortified in the fourth century BC. The cemeteries (largely chamber tombs), mainly dating to the seventh to fifth century BC, have also been explored in localities such as Porzarago and Fosso del Pietrisco. The settlement appears to have been politically subordinate to Caere for most of its occupation, perhaps only substituted by Tarquinia at a late stage.
Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. Simon K. F. Stoddart.