SLAVERY
   There are three sources of information on the vexed issue of the presence of Etruscan slaves (or serfs). The most direct is linguistic, through the presence in inscriptions of the terms etera and lautni, generally translated as “slave” and “freedman” respectively. The least direct is through Greek literary sources, which comment in moralistic terms on the divisions of Etruscan society. More difficult to interpret is the iconographic and archaeological evidence, where scale, dress, and physical appearance have been employed to identify distinctive and inferior individuals in tombs such as the fourth-century BC Golini Tomb 1 near Orvieto and the fourth-century BC Tomb of the Shields at Tarquinia. The case has been made that some individuals in earlier (approximately 510 BC) tomb paintings from Tarquinia (e.g., Tombs of Hunting and Fishing, the Baron and the Jugglers) have the distinctive features of people from central Europe and can be identified as slaves that were imported as part of the trading systems linking Etruria to areas north of the Alps.
   See also CAI CUTU; SOCIAL CLASS.

Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. .

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