- An important city of northern coastal South Etruria that particularly flourished from the end of the seventh to the mid-fifth century BC. The first indication of a Late Bronze Age occupation was in the form of three Protovillanovan fibulae from the cemeteries of Ponte Rotto and Cavalupo. Recent survey work has found evidence for Late Bronze settlement in the area of the later Villanovan and Etruscan city. There is evidence for eighth-century contact with Sardinia and it became an important settlement for Greek imports (particularly Greek red figure pottery) and Etruscan imitations. From fifth century artifacts, there is evidence of figurines dedicated to Menrva and Turms. Cremation was the major rite until the beginning of the seventh century BC, when inhumation became dominant, accompanied by chamber tombs and tombe a cassone. Certain Archaic forms persisted (such as the fossa tomb). Only one tomb, the tomb of Isis, is at all comparable to the rich Orientalizing tombs elsewhere in Etruria.The city had an important tradition of stone sculpture (particularly from 610 to 510 BC), notable bronzework, and varied pottery production including bucchero. One bronze tripod was found on the Acropolis of Athens. A very large number of Attic and other Greek vessels were found at Vulci, an appearance enhanced outside Etruria by the fact that the tombs were excavated at a time of legal export and have found their way into the principal museums of Europe and beyond. Examples of these finds in the British Museum include the following: a black-figured lip cup, attributed to the Phrynos Painter (540 BC); a black-figured amphora (wine jar) signed by Exekias as potter and attributed to him as painter (540 to 530 BC), depicting Achilles killing the Amazon Queen Penthesilea; a black-figured neck-amphora, signed by the potter Andokides, attributed to the painter Psiax (530 to 520 BC), depicting Dionysos with satyrs; a black-figured plate, attributed to the painter Psiax (520 to 500 BC), depicting an archer blowing a trumpet; a Chalkidian black-figured column-krater, attributed to the Inscription Painter (540 BC), possibly made in Rhegion (modern Reggio), Italy; a red-figured cup, attributed to the Brygos Painter (490 to 480 BC), showing symposium scenes; a redfigured cup, attributed to the Foundry Painter (500 to 475 BC), showing athletics; a red-figured cup attributed to the Kodros Painter (440 to 430 BC), showing Theseus. The city was the probable production place of the indigenous Etrusco-Corinthian Pescia Romana Painter and the black figure Micali Painter. Prominent descent groups of the city include the Satie, Tarna, and Tute.
Historical Dictionary of the Etruscans. Simon K. F. Stoddart.